There are different varieties of wine depending on the region, the grape variety, the production methods and many other criteria. In terms of composition, we can distinguish still wines from sparkling wines. If the former are very popular for special occasions, the latter are also very popular.
Today, we are going to talk to you about the different types of sparkling wine, since there is a plethora of them on the market.
What is a sparkling wine?
In order to understand it, you must first know what a sparkling wine is. Sparkling wine is any type of wine that contains bubbles.
The appearance of these bubbles is due to the presence of carbon dioxide in the liquid. After fermentation and closing the bottle, the CO2 gas dissolves completely in the liquid. When the bottle is opened and the contents are poured into a glass, contact with the small impurities in the glass causes the bubbles to appear. Wines that contain very little carbon dioxide do not produce bubbles.
Now, according to the content of effervescence, we can distinguish a sparkling wine from a semi-sparkling wine and from a pearl wine. Any type of wine that contains 2 to 4 grams of CO2 per liter is called sparkling wine. However, there are several types of sparkling wines.
Natural sparkling wine
This is a sparkling wine made from organically or biodynamically grown grapes. This implies that no inputs, let alone sulfites, have been added to the culture. The natural sparkling wine is made with the ancestral method. According to this method, the winemakers do not wait for the end of fermentation before bottling the wine. It ends once in the bottle.
The yeasts finish consuming the sugar, which causes the presence of CO2. This creates bubbles. The vineyards of Gaillac, Cardon and Bugey are those who use this method the most.
The Italian PROSECCO sparkling wine
It is gaining more and more markets, especially in the United States and Great Britain. It is mainly served in cocktails and consumed under the two strong names of Spritz and Bellini. Mainly produced in the north of Italy, this wine is largely composed of Glérat. It has a low alcohol content and a light fruity taste. Its color is like that of champagne.
However, it can be drunk young, which is far from being the case with champagne, crémant or calva. This wine has a strong appeal to millennials and is gaining huge markets around the world.
Spanish sparkling cava wine
This wine is produced according to the traditional method in the region of Catalonia, Spain. Less appreciated and less succulent than champagne, it is sold at a very affordable price.
The vast majority of crémants are French. Seven wine-producing regions are responsible for them: Burgundy, Languedoc-Roussillon, Alsace, Savoy, Bordeaux, Jura, Roussillon, Loire. Also produced according to the traditional method, crémants have a color similar to that of champagne. These sparkling wines are sold at a price around 15 and 25 euros per bottle and are very gastronomic.
The methods of obtaining sparkling wine
There are at least four different methods to obtain sparkling wine. Here we list the most common ones used by winemakers.
The Champagne method
It follows the same elaboration process as the traditional method. However, it includes a second fermentation in the bottle. It is only used for champagne wines.
The ancestral method
This is the natural method of obtaining a sparkling wine. It has already been detailed above.
The dioise method
This method is categorically opposed to the ancestral method. The sparkling wines obtained through this method are not natural at all. The measures are here filtered without addition of liquor of proportioning.
How to find it on the shelf ?
The best way is to ask the wine merchants to guide you, especially when you want to buy natural sparkling wine. This is because, unlike other sparkling wines that contain chemical compounds, natural sparkling wines have the term « pet Nat » on their labels. Sometimes you can find the name of the winemaker, a landscape, nothing so indicative to help you in your choice. No grape variety specified, no geographical indication. It is then difficult to make an adequate choice.
Wine is a beverage that makes all taste buds agree. Even better, sparkling wines are gaining in popularity and winning hearts. There are many types of sparkling wine. In this regard, there are natural sparkling wines and sparkling wines that incorporate chemical compounds. While the first ones are made according to the ancestral method, the others can be made using different methods.